Breast cancer

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This topic contains 3 replies, has 4 voices, and was last updated by Precious Ozavize Precious 3 years, 4 months ago.

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  • #2463

    Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women, and the second main cause of cancer death in women, after lung cancer.

    Advances in screening and treatment have improved survival rates dramatically since 1989. There are around 3.1 million breast cancer survivors in the United States (U.S.). The chance of any woman dying from breast cancer is around 1 in 37, or 2.7 percent.

    In 2017, around 252, 710 new diagnoses of breast cancer are expected in women, and around 40,610 women are likely to die from the disease.

    Awareness of the symptoms and the need for screening are important ways of reducing the risk.

    Breast cancer can affect men too, but this article will focus on breast cancer in women.

    Fast facts on breast cancer:

    Here are some key points about breast cancer. More detail is in the main article.

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women.

    Symptoms include a lump or thickening of the breast, and changes to the skin or the nipple.

    Risk factors can be genetic, but some lifestyle factors, such as alcohol intake, make it more likely to happen.

    A range of treatments is available, including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

    Many breast lumps are not cancerous, but any woman who is concerned about a lump or change should see a doctor.


    The first symptoms of breast cancer are usually an area of thickened tissue in the breast, or a lump in the breast or in an armpit.

    An early diagnosis of breast cancer increases the chance of recovery.

    Other symptoms include:

    a pain in the armpits or breast that does not change with the monthly cycle

    pitting or redness of the skin of the breast, like the skin of an orange

    a rash around or on one of the nipples

    a discharge from a nipple, possibly containing blood

    a sunken or inverted nipple

    a change in the size or shape of the breast

    peeling, flaking, or scaling of the skin on the breast or nipple

    Most lumps are not cancerous, but women should have them checked by a health care professional.


    Cancer is staged according to the size of the tumor and whether it has spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

    There are different ways of staging breast cancer. One way is from stage 0 to 4, but these may be broken down into smaller stages.

    Stage 0: Known as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the cells are limited to within a duct and have not invaded surrounding tissues.

    Stage 1: At the beginning of this stage, the tumor is up to 2 centimeters (cm) across and it has not affected any lymph nodes.

    Stage 2: The tumor is 2 cm across and it has started to spread to nearby nodes.

    Stage 3: The tumor is up to 5 cm across and it may have spread to some lymph nodes.

    Stage 4: The cancer has spread to distant organs, especially the bones, liver, brain, or lungs.


    After puberty, a woman’s breast consists of fat, connective tissue, and thousands of lobules, tiny glands that produce milk for breast-feeding. Tiny tubes, or ducts, carry the milk toward the nipple.

    In cancer, the body’s cells multiply uncontrollably. It is the excessive cell growth that causes cancer.

    Breast cancer usually starts in the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply them with milk. From there, it can spread to other parts of the body.

    Risk factors

    The exact cause remains unclear, but some risk factors make it more likely. Some of these are preventable.

    1. Age

    The risk increases with age. At 20 years, the chance of developing breast cancer in the next decade is 0.6 percent. By the age of 70 years, this figure goes up to 3.84 percent.

    2. Genetics

    If a close relative has or has had, breast cancer, the risk is higher.

    Women who carry the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, ovarian cancer or both. These genes can be inherited. TP53 is another gene that is linked to a greater breast cancer risk.

    3. A history of breast cancer or breast lumps

    Women who have had breast cancer before are more likely to have it again, compared with

  • #2465

    Thanks for sharing this for awareness

  • #2467

    Always self examine yourself and report to the gynecologist in case of any lump immediately

  • #2474

    It’s an epidemic that has claimed many lives

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